Shipping Terms


A number of railway wagons, usually a block train, on which containers can be stacked two- high.

Construction of the bottom of a ship whereby a generally watertight space is formed between the shell and an inner bottom placed at a sufficient height above the baseline to allow access and to reduce risks due to grounding or colliding.

Appropriate statement as to the origin of the goods, made in connection with their exportation by the manufacturer, producer, supplier, exporter or other competent person on the commercial invoice or

The value of the goods declared to the carrier by the shipper for the purpose of determining charges or of establishing the limit of the carrier's liability for loss, damage or delay. It is also the basis for possible applicable valuation charges (air cargo).

Damage Report

Form on which physical damage is recorded (e.g. containers).

Damaged Cargo Report

Written statement concerning established damages to cargo and/or equipment.

Dangerous Goods

Goods are to be considered dangerous if the transport of such goods might cause harm, risk, peril, or other evil to people, environment, equipment or any property whatsoever.

Dangerous Goods Declaration

Document issued by a consignor in accordance with applicable conventions or regulations, describing hazardous goods or materials for transport purposes, and stating that the latter have been packed and labelled in accordance with the provisions of the relevant conventions or regulations.

Dangerous Goods Packing Certificate

A document as part of the dangerous goods declaration in which the responsible party declares that the cargo has been stowed in accordance with the rules in a clean container in compliance with the IMDG regulations and properly secured.


A re-interpretable representation of information in a formalised manner suitable for communication, interpretation or processing.

Data Carrier

Medium designed to carry records of data entries.

Data Plate

A metal identification plate affixed to a container, which displays among others the gross and tare weights and external dimensions.


Slots paid for but not used.


The difference between the actual and calculated ship's draft.


Abbreviation: DWT
The total weight of cargo, cargo equipment, bunkers, provisions, water, stores and spare parts which a vessel can lift when loaded to her maximum draught as applicable under the circumstances. The dead-weight is expressed in tons.

Decision Support System

Abbreviation: DSS
An interactive computer-based system which generates a number of alternatives to solve an unstructured problem. These alternatives are being interpreted by the manager (decision- maker), whereafter he decides which alternative is to be used to solve the problem.


Any extended horizontal structure in a vessel or an aircraft, serving as a floor and structural support, covering, partially or fully, a portion of the vessel or aircraft.

Declaration of Origin

Appropriate statement as to the origin of the goods, made in connection with their exportation by the manufacturer, producer, supplier, exporter or other competent person on the commercial invoice or any document relating to goods.

Decoupling Inventory

A stock retained to make the independent control of two successive operations possible.

Decoupling Point

The point in the supply chain which provides a buffer between differing input and output rates.

Dedicated Service

A service specially designed for the use by one or more particular customers. A service (e.g. feeder) totally under control of the P&O Nedlloyd Line

Deep Tank

Tank fitted and equipped for the carriage of vegetable oil (e.g. palm oil and coconut oil) and other liquids in bulk. By means of oil-tight bulkheads and/or decks it is possible to carry different kinds of liquid in adjacent tanks. Deep tanks may be equipped with heating facilities in order to carry and discharge oil at the required temperature (P&O Nedlloyd).

Default Charge

A (standard) charge applicable for a trade, stretch or location. In the absence of specifics (not otherwise specified/enumerated) a general amount has been set.



Delay in Transit (DIT)

Delay of shipment at the customerżs request.

Delivered At Frontier (...named place)

Abbreviation: DAF
See Inco Terms

Delivered Duty Paid (...named place of destination)

Abbreviation: DDP
See Inco Terms

Delivered Duty Unpaid (...named place of destination)

Abbreviation: DDU
See Inco Terms

Delivered Ex Quay (...named port of destination)

Abbreviation: DEQ
See Inco Terms

Delivered Ex Ship (...named port of destination)

Abbreviation: DES
See Inco Terms

Delivering Carrier

The carrier who delivers the consignment to the consignee or his agent (air cargo).


The process of delivering the consignment to the consignee at the agreed place.

Delivery Instruction

Document issued by a buyer giving instructions regarding the details of the delivery of goods ordered.

Delivery Note

A document recording the delivery of products to a consignee (customer).

Delivery Order

A carrierżs delivery order (negotiable document) is used for splitting a B/L (after surrender) in different parcels and have the same function as a B/L. The authorisation of the entitled party for the shipment to a party other than the consignee showed on the Air Waybill (air cargo).

Delivery Party

The party to which goods are to be delivered.

Delivery Reliability

The proportion of total delivery occasions in which the time, place, quality and quantity of products delivered accords with the order.

Delivery Schedule

The required and/or agreed time of delivery of goods or services purchased for a future period.

Delivery Service

The carriage of inbound consignments from the airport of destination to the address of the consignee or his designated agent or to the custody of the appropriate custom department agency when required (air cargo).

Delivery Time

The time between order and delivery.


The quantity of goods required by the market to be delivered in a particular period or at a specific date.

Demise Charter

A contract whereby the shipowner leases his vessel to the charterer for a period of time during which the whole use and management of the vessel passes to the charterer, which involves that the charterer is to pay all expenses for the operation and maintenance of the vessel. Officers and crew will become servants of the charterer. A demise charter whereby the charterer has the right to place his own master and crew on board of the vessel is also called 'bareboat charter'.


A variable fee charged to carriers and/or customers for the use of Unit Load Devices (ULD's) owned by a carrier beyond the free time of shipment. Additional charge imposed for exceeding the free time, which is included in the rate and allowed for the use of certain equipment at the terminal.

Density of Commodity

The mass of a commodity to its volume.

Dependent Demand

A demand directly related to or derived from the demand for other items or end products. Dependent demands are therefore calculated, and need not and should not be forecast.


The place designated by the carrier where empty containers are kept in stock and received from or delivered to the container operators or merchants.

Depot Location

The geographical place where one or more P&O Nedlloyd depots are situated.


Lifting equipment on board a conventional vessel for loading and discharging cargo, consisting of a post attached to the deck and an inclined spar.


The process of sending goods

Despatch Advice

Information send by shippers to the recipient of goods informing that specified goods are sent or ready to be sent advising the detailed contents of the consignment.

Despatch Days

The days gained if the free time included in the rate and allowed for the use of certain equipment is not fully used.

Despatch Note (for post parcels)

Document which, according to the agreement concerning postal parcels, is to accompany post parcels.


Place for which goods or a vehicle is bound. The ultimate stopping place according to the contract of carriage (air cargo).

Det Norske Veritas

Norwegian classification society.


Keeping equipment beyond the time allowed. See Demurrage

Detention Charge

Charges levied on usage of equipment exceeding free time period as stipulated in the pertinent inland rules and conditions.


The downgrading of a product due to long storage, damage to packing or other external influences.


See Stripping, Unpacking

Deviation from a Route

A divergence from the agreed or customary route.


Measurements in length, width and height, regarding cargo.

Direct Delivery

The conveyance of goods directly from the vendor to the buyer. Frequently used if a third party acts as intermediary agent between vendor and buyer. Direct discharge from vessel onto railroad car, road vehicle or barge with the purpose of immediate transport from the port area (usually occurs when ports lack adequate storage space or when ports are not equipped to handle a specific cargo).

Direct Interchange

Transfer of leased equipment from one lessee to another (container).

Direct Product Profitability

Abbreviation: DPP
System employed mainly within the retail sector for calculating the profit from any given product in any given position within the supply chain, requiring transparency and management of all logistic costs.

Direct Route

The shortest operated route between two points.


Sums paid out by a ship's agent at a port and recovered from the carrier.


The unloading of a vehicle, a vessel or an aircraft.
The landing of cargo.


Difference between the particulars given and the particulars found.

Discrete Code

A bar code in which the spaces between characters (inter character gaps) are not part of the code as each character begins and ends with a bar. The spaces can therefore vary in width, specified tolerances. An example is Code 39.


See Despatch


The weight of the quantity of water displaced by the vessel. The displacement of the vessel on her light draft represents the weight of the vessel ready for use including stores etc.

Disposable Pallet

Pallet intended to be discarded after a single cycle of use.

Disposal Chain

A sequence of events in a goods-flow which gets rid of a specific good. This may include removal, recycling, waste dumping etc.

Disposal of Goods

The act of getting rid of goods.


All activities relating to the inland movement of empty and or full containers.


The set of activities which ensure the availability of goods in the desired quality, quantity, place and time for the customer.

Distribution Centre

A warehouse for the receipt, the storage and the dispersal of goods among customers.

Distribution Channel

The route by which a company distributes goods.

Distribution Resource Planning

Abbreviation: DRP-II
The set of concepts, procedures and techniques, being an extension of DRP-I, for the effective planning and control of the physical distribution.


A vertically mounted partition in a compartment on board of an aircraft.

Dock Bumpers

Cushioning devices (rubber, plastic, wood, etc.) mounted at the extreme rear of a chassis or trailer to take the impact when it backs into a loading dock or platform (road cargo).

Dock Receipt

Document issued by P&O Nedlloyd acknowledging that goods are received for shipment.


Anything printed, written, relied upon to record or prove something.

Document Holder

Usually fastened to the door on the front of a container. May contain e.g. a certificate of approval of the container.

Domestic Carriage

Carriage whereby the place of departure and the place of destination are situated within one country (air cargo).

Domestic Rate

Rate applicable within a country, and in most cases subject to special conditions other than those of IATA (air cargo).

Door Lock Bars

See Bars

Door to Door Transport

See House to House Transport

Double Banking

Two vessels moored alongside each other on a certain berth.

Double-deck Pallet

Flat pallet with a top and bottom deck.

Down Time

The period of time when a machine is not available for production due to a functional failure or maintenance.


The draft of a vessel is the vertical distance between the waterline and the underside of the keel of the vessel. During the construction of a vessel the marks showing the draft are welded on each side of the vessel near the stem, the stern and amidships.


See Draft


Repayment of any part of customs or excise duties previously collected on imported goods, when those goods are exported again.


The hauling of a load by a cart with detachable sides (dray). Road transportation between the nearest railway terminal and the stuffing place.

Drilling Rig

A structure, which drills wells in the bottom in order to search for oil.

Drop off Charge

Charge made by container owner and/or terminal operators for delivery of a leased, or pool container into depot stock. The drop-off charge may be a combination of actual handling and storage charges with surcharges.

Dry Bulk Container

Container consisting of a cargo-carrying structure, firmly secured within a framework, for the carriage of dry solids in bulk without packaging.
Containers of this type have type codes 80 and 81.

Dry Cargo Container

P&O Nedlloyd container which is designed for the carriage of goods other than liquids.


Stowage material, mainly timber or board, used to prevent damage to cargo during carriage.

Duty Free Zone

An area where goods or cargo can be stored without paying import customs duties awaiting further transport or manufacturing.

The route by which a company distributes goods.

Abbreviation: DRP-I
The function of determining the need to replenish stock at branch warehouses.

Two vessels moored alongside each other on a certain berth.

A number of railway wagons, usually a block train, on which containers can be stacked two- high.

swiss to fly ppe in from china swiss is to perform a series of flights bringing vital protective medical equipment from china to switzerland. air cargo china cancelled the global covid-19 pandemic is growing in scale and is exceeding all ex-pectations. in consultation with partners and associations of the air freight industry messe münchen feels compelled to cancel air cargo china, which was scheduled for june 16–18 in shanghai. lufthansa hopes to keep cargo flying lufthansa cargo is making every effort to maintain the flight operations of its cargo aircraft in the current corona crisis. turkish cargo puts cargo in the passenger cabin turkish cargo will utilise their network and fly their turkish airlines passenger aircraft for airfreight as repercussions from the coronavirus outbreak and travel bans send global supply chains into disarray. latam cargo mitigates supply chain difficulties through freighters latam cargo has sought to mitigate the current difficulties through its 11 b767-300 freighter aircraft, which make latam cargo group the cargo airline with the most freighters operating in latin america. swiss worldcargo to commence freight-only flights swiss worldcargo has announced that this week will see the commencement of cargo-only flights on some aircraft. heathrow calls on supply chain to maximise capacity heathrow will be stepping up its cargo capabilities as it calls on more airlines and freight companies to maximise the use of the hub airport’s quieter schedule so that the aviation industry can play its part in the economic and social fight against covid-19. turkish cargo connects linz with direct freighter service turkish cargo is continuing to increase its network announcing new direct freighter flights to linz (austria). caribbean airlines cargo suspends two freighter services caribbean airlines has temporarily suspended its tuesday and thursday freighter flights etihad announces new freighter schedule etihad cargo has announced its freighter schedule for the iata summer season, boosting capacity to its top freighter gateways. atlas air’s flynn on track for a new career former atlas air president and ceo william j flynn has been appointed as us passenger train operator amtrak’s next chief executive officer and president. swiss worldcargo extends china suspensions in light of the current coronavirus situation, swiss and swiss worldcargo have made further adjustments on flights between zurich and beijing, shanghai and hong kong. fraport announces cost-reduction measures in response to coronavirus frankfurt airport operator fraport has announced new cost-reduction measures in response to the impact of the coronavirus. silkway keeps flying the current corona epidemic is having a significant impact on the air cargo industry. the aviation industry has taken the hit of coronavirus “airlines, aviation financing and plane makers – inherently vulnerable to the economic side-effects of a potential pandemic – faced challenges as the year began, ensuring they are now at growing risk of severe coronavirus-related disruption,” says scope, specialist financial analysts. covid-19: the disruption continues for supply chains richard wilding obe, professor of supply chain strategy at the uk’s cranfield university, comments on the latest challenges covid-19 presents the supply chain. he points out that consumer demand for face masks is impacting on wider industry needs. cargolux and atlas air predict a subdued airfreight market in 2020 the cargo freight market is likely to remain weak this year, industry leaders believe, as it remains hampered by overcapacity and weak growth in several regions around the world. finnair cancels mainland china flights until the end of winter finnair will cancel its flights to beijing capital airport and to shanghai during march 1-28, 2020 (until the end of the winter season), as the coronavirus situation has led to a temporary decline in air travel between china and europe. airbridgecargo offers charter flights to meet coronavirus-related demand the volga-dnepr group has been operating as many as five “sterilised” charter flights into china each day to cater for coronavirus related demand. valentines boost for latam cargo more than 210 latam cargo boeing 767-300 freighters took off from colombia and ecuador, carrying 12,600 tons of flowers for the 2020 valentine’s day season