Shipping Terms



A term used to distinguish manufacturing operations for components as opposed to assembly operations.


The implementation of measures leading to the simplification, standardisation and harmonisation of the formalities, procedures, documents and operations inherent to international trade transactions.

Factory Delivery

The delivery of goods by a factory whereby the goods are put at the disposal of another (internal) party such as a commercial department.


A navigable channel for vessels, often the regular or prescribed track a vessel will follow in order to avoid dangerous circumstances.


Facilitation Committee of the IMO.

Fashion Transport

Transport of clothing and/or garments including shoes, belts and handbags in dedicated means of transport.

Feed Back

The flow of information back into the control system so that actual performance can be compared with planned performance.


A vessel normally used for local or coastal transport (for carriage of cargo and/or containers) to and from ports not scheduled to be called by the main (ocean) vessel, directly connecting these ports to the main (ocean) vessel.


An appliance made of rubber, timber and/or rope or other materials normally attached to a dock or quay used to prevent damage to the hull of a vessel especially during mooring and un-mooring operations.


Ship carrying passengers and or vehicles engaged in regular short voyages, e.g. across a river or narrow body of water, between two or more places or ports.

Fifth Wheel

Circular or wheel-shaped bearing mechanism, secured on the rear of the chassis of a truck- tractor that engages the semi-trailer king pin with a spring lock device and supports the weight of the front end of the semi-trailer.

First Carrier

The carrier who actually performs the first part of the air transport (air cargo).

First In First Out

Abbreviation: FIFO
The method whereby the goods which have been longest in stock (first in) are used, delivered (sold) and/or consumed first (first out).

Five Freedoms

A collective term which depicts the five areas of 'rights' for the air-transportation of passengers or cargo, viz. (expressed in terms of an airline of country A): Freedom 1 the right to overfly a foreign country.
Freedom 2 the right to make a non-traffic stop at a foreign country C en route to foreign country B.
Freedom 3 the right to set down (off loading) passengers or cargo in a foreign country B from home country A.
Freedom 4 the right to pick up (loading) passengers/ cargo from a foreign country B to country A.
Freedom 5 the right to carry passengers or cargo between two foreign countries.

Fixed Crane

A crane of which the principal structure is mounted on permanent or semi-permanent foundations.

Fixed Height Load-carrying Truck

Truck carrying its load on a non-elevating platform.

Fixed Platform Truck

See Fixed Height Load-carrying Truck


An indication of the country in which a means of transport is registered through a reference to the ensign of this country.


Capable to be set on fire under given circumstances. (Amendment 25 IMO DGS).

Flash Point

The lowest temperature at which a good produces enough vapour to form a flammable mixture with air.


See Flat Rack

Flat Bed Trailer

A wheeled trailer or a semi-trailer with a flat cargo carrying surface or deck and without any superstructure.

Flat Pack

Garments packed in cardboard boxes.

Flat Rack Container

A container with two end walls and open sides.


Any group of means of transport acting together or under one control.


The extent to which and the rate at which adjustments to changed circumstances are possible.

Flight Number

A combination of two letters, indicating the airline, and three or four digits indicating the number of the voyage.


Freely suspending in water of an object.

Floating Crane

A crane mounted on a barge or pontoon, which can be towed or is self-propelled.

Floating Dock

A floating structure which can be partially submerged to enable vessels to enter and to leave and which can be raised for use as a dry dock.

Floating Stock

See Pipeline Inventory


Goods lost by shipwreck, found floating in the sea.

Flow Chart

A diagram, using symbols and depicting the sequence of events that should take place in a complex set of tasks.

Flow Control

A term often used to describe a specific production control system.

Flow Line

The direction of flow in which e.g. pallets have been positioned and stowed.

Flow of materials

The flow of materials and components which goes to and through the factory for the production process.


Federal Maritime Commission (Control of Shipping acts USA)


See Forecastle

Force Majeure

Circumstance which is beyond the control of one of the parties to a contract and which may, according to the terms and conditions, relieve that party of liability for failing to execute the contract.

Fore and Aft Stowage

Stowage from the bow to the stern (lengthwise), as opposed to stowage athwartships.


An estimation or calculation in advance; a prediction. The amount of cargo expected to be booked for a certain sailing of a vessel. The number of containers expected to be used in a certain area, for steering purposes.


Abbreviation: Fo'c's'le Forward part of a vessel where stores, ropes and anchor chains are located.

Fork Lift Pockets

See Fork Pockets

Fork Lift Truck

A three or four wheeled mechanical truck with forks at the front designed for lifting, carrying and stowing cargo.

Fork Pockets

Openings or recesses in a side of a container for the entry of the forks of a fork lift truck.

Formal Performance Evaluation

Evaluation of carrierżs performance as per agreed contract.

Forms EDI

A screen presenting to a user the contents of an EDI message in a manner that is easy to use and interpret. The form may reside on a web site or the computer of the party viewing or completing the form. The form may be based on the UN Layout key (UNLK).

Formula of Camp

A mathematical formula on behalf of inventory management for calculating the optimum order quantity.

Forty Foot Equivalent Unit

Abbreviation: FEU Unit of measurement equivalent to one forty foot P&O Nedlloyd container.


At, near or towards the bow or front of a vessel or an aircraft.


The party arranging the carriage of goods including connected services and/or associated formalities on behalf of a shipper or consignee.

Forwarding Charge

Charges paid or to be paid for preliminary surface or air transport to the airport of departure by a forwarder, but not by a carrier under an Air Waybill (air cargo).

Forwarding Instruction

Document issued to a freight forwarder, giving instructions to the forwarder for the forwarding of goods described therein.

Four Way Pallet

A pallet of which the frame permits the entry of forks of e.g. a fork lift truck at all four sides.


Easily breakable. Term denoting that goods should be handled with care.

Franc Poincar

Unit of value in which the limitation of the carrier's liability is sometimes expressed. One franc poincarżonsists of 65.5 milligram of gold with a fineness of nine hundred thousands.


Amount which in case of damage will have to be borne by the assured.


Avoidance of payment of taxes and duties in full or in part or the claiming and obtaining of fictitious export refund claims. (Customs)

Free Alongside Ship (...named port of shipment)

Abbreviation: FAS
See Inco Terms

Free Carrier (...named place)

Abbreviation: FCA
See Inco Terms

Free House Unclear

Delivered at a certain destination without payment of certain duties or incurred costs.

Free In and Out

Abbreviation: FIO
Transport condition denoting that the freight rate excludes the costs of loading and discharging and, if appropriate, stowage and lashing.

Free In Liner Out

Abbreviation: FILO Transport condition denoting that the freight rate is inclusive of the sea carriage and the cost of discharging, the latter as per the custom of the port. It excludes the cost of loading and, if appropriate, stowage and lashing.

Free Lift

The maximum elevation of the forks of a fork lift truck.

Free On Board (...named port of shipment)

Abbreviation: FOB
See Inco Terms

Free Port

An international port or an area within an international port at which, crew, passengers, baggage, cargo, mail and stores may be disembarked or unloaded, may remain and may be transhipped, without being subjected to any customs charges or duties. (Examination is possible for instance to meet security or narcotics control requirements.) Source: IMO.

Free Pratique

Permission granted by local medical authorities, denoting that the vessel has a clean Bill of Health so that people may embark and disembark.

Free Trade Zone

Abbreviation: FTZ
A part of the territory of a state where any goods introduced are generally regarded, in so far as import duties and taxes are concerned, as being exempted (Kyoto Convention).


Distance measured vertically from the freeboard deck accepted and indicated by the class bureau to the waterline under specified conditions.

Freeboard of a Vessel

Vertical distance from the main deck to the surface of the water measured at the middle of the vessel's length.


The amount of money due for the carriage of goods and payable either in advance or upon delivery.

Freight All Kinds

Abbreviation: FAK
Single freight which is charged irrespective of the commodity.

Freight Collect

Freight and charges to be paid by the consignee.

Freight Container

See Container

Freight Costs

Costs incurred by the merchant in moving goods, by whatever means, from one place to another under the terms of the contract of carriage. In addition to transport costs this may include such elements as packing, documentation, loading, unloading and transport insurance.

Freight Forwarder

See Forwarder

Freight Invoice

An itemised list of goods shipped and services rendered stating fees and charges.

Freight Manifest

A (cargo) manifest including all freight particulars.

Freight Payer

The party which, by virtue of an agreement is responsible for the payment of freight charges to the carrier.

Freight Prepaid

Freight and charges to be paid by the consignor.

Freight Ton

A unit for freighting cargo according to weight and/or cubic measurement.


A vessel or an aircraft used for the carriage of cargo.


Full Truck Load, an indication for a truck transporting cargo directly from supplier to receiver.

Full Container Load

Abbreviation: FCL
A container stuffed or stripped under risk and for account of the shipper and/or the consignee. A general reference for identifying container loads of cargo loaded and/or discharged at merchants' premises.

Full Trailer

A truck trailer constructed in such way that its own weight and that of the cargo rest upon its own wheels, instead of being supported by e.g. a tractor.

Fully Cellular Containership

Abbreviation: FCC
A vessel specially designed to carry containers, with cell-guides under deck and necessary fittings and equipment on deck.


To expose certain spaces to the action of fumes in order to disinfect or kill vermin. For containers done in line with national legislation.

dhl partners longhorn in vaccine delivery : dhl global forwarding, the air and ocean freight specialist of deutsche post dhl group, has partnered with longhorn vaccines & diagnostics to deliver much-needed covid-19 testing vials to the international organization for migration (iom) in kenya, nepal and the philippines. qatar airways appoints ecs group : as of february 21, ecs group, the leading gssa, with its established presence in the region and strong partnership with the airline in over 20 countries, is supervising the management of cargo capacity via its subsidiary globe air cargo. qatar airways appoints ecs group : as of february 21, ecs group, the leading gssa, with its established presence in the region and strong partnership with the airline in over 20 countries, is supervising the management of cargo capacity via its subsidiary globe air cargo. shell bitumen reappoints dhl : dhl supply chain has been reappointed by shell bitumen in a new five-year contract starting on 1 march 2021. shell bitumen reappoints dhl : dhl supply chain has been reappointed by shell bitumen in a new five-year contract starting on 1 march 2021. maersk sails through 2020 despite disruption : 2020 has been another year of solid progress for a.p. moller - maersk, both in terms of financial performance and in transforming the company. despite low volumes during most of 2020, profitability grew throughout the first nine months and ended the year with record q4 results in logistics and terminals, while ocean delivered an exceptional quarter driven by the increased volumes and current, temporary supply chain disruptions. port of rotterdam investigates green hydrogen : uniper and the port of rotterdam authority are investigating the possibilities of large-scale production of green hydrogen at the maasvlakte area in rotterdam. the parties have the ambition to realise a hydrogen plant on the site of uniper by 2025 with a capacity of 100mw and to expand this capacity to 500mw. the feasibility study will be completed this summer. dsv launches dsv customs classification : dsv launches a new customs classification service for international businesses called dsv customs classification. with the new service, dsv offers to perform customs classification on behalf of businesses, ensuring compliance with regulations and easing customers’ administrative hassle. qatar airways cargo to recommence middle east sales : effective 21 february 2021, qatar airways cargo will recommence cargo sales and bookings in the kingdom of saudi arabia, the united arab emirates and the arab republic of egypt with the appointment of general sales agents in these countries. unilode aviation solutions signs long-term agreement with la couverture : unilode aviation solutions, the market leader in outsourced unit load device (uld) management and repair services, and mdg group, a supplier of cold chain products and services for the food and pharmaceutical sectors, sign a long-term agreement for the repair of la couverture, a unique product developed and manufactured by mdg for the protection of temperature-sensitive products in the aviation supply chain. xpo logistics once again named a world's most admired company : xpo logistics, inc., a leading global provider of transportation and logistics solutions, has been named a world’s most admired company for 2021 by fortune magazine. xpo has been recognized by fortune as a world’s most admired company every year since 2018. turkish cargo prepares for 'cargo talks' industry discussion : turkish cargo is organizing a webinar titled “cargo talks” during which the valuable stakeholders of the air cargo industry, who finger on the pulse of the industry, will exchange opinions, and the important agenda items such as digitalization, vaccine transport, and the future of the industry will be discussed. the port of los angeles launches truck efficiency incentive : the port of los angeles is launching a new incentive program to move trucks faster and more efficiently through its terminals. ceva logistics expands south east asian reach : ceva logistics has further expanded its reach in south east asia with the opening of a new warehouse located in bien hoa city, dong nai province in vietnam. strategically located to the north east of ho chi minh city, this new facility has a range of convenient connections to the eastern economic zone as well as the city. ceva logistics expands south east asian reach ceva logistics has further expanded its reach in south east asia with the opening of a new warehouse located in bien hoa city, dong nai province in vietnam. strategically located to the north east of ho chi minh city, this new facility has a range of convenient connections to the eastern economic zone as well as the city. abu dhabi ports signs integrated maritime logistics agreement : safeen, abu dhabi ports’ maritime arm, has recently signed a historic agreement with allianz marine & logistics services (amls), to launch a new international provider of integrated maritime logistic services. qatar airways cargo announces re-wilding programme : qatar airways cargo announces chapter 2 of its sustainability programme weqare: rewild the planet. kuehne+nagel joins team malizia's sustainability and marine protection efforts : committed to marine protection and sustainable shipping, cma cgm, hapag-lloyd, msc and kuehne+nagel support the yacht racing team malizia under the motto: "a race we must win". with a strong environmental message, the partners are working for a sustainable future and contributing to ocean health by reducing worldwide co2 emissions while focusing on the main pillars: co2 reduction and transparency, science and education. port of dunkirk to rosslare increases capacity : as of wednesday 27 january, the "mv drotten", sistership of the "mv visby", will now call at the dfds seaways ro-ro terminal on the dunkerque-rosslare service (ireland). port of rotterdam sails through a rocky year : 2020 was quite a special year for the harbour master’s division of the port of rotterdam authority. covid-19 was a dominant factor in the port as well. additional corona containment measures led to an increase in work pressure.