Shipping Terms


P & I Club

See Protection and Indemnity Club


Any physical piece of cargo in relation to transport consisting of the contents and its packing for the purpose of ease of handling by manual or mechanical means. The final product of the packing operation consisting of the packing and its contents to facilitate manual or mechanical handling.


Materials used for the containment, protection, handling, delivery and presentation of goods and the activities of placing and securing goods in those materials.


Any container or other covering in which goods are packed.

Packing Instruction

Document issued within an enterprise giving instructions on how goods are to be packed.

Packing List

Document specifying the contents of each individual package.

Packing Unit

A type of package where a standard quantity of products of a specific product type can be packed and that requires no additional packaging for storage and shipment.


A platform on which goods can be stacked in order to facilitate the movement by a fork lift or sling.

Pallet Convertor

Superstructure which can be applied to a pallet to convert it into either a box or post pallet.

Pallet Rack

A skeleton framework, of fixed or adjustable design, to support a number of individual pallet loads.

Pallet Truck

Pedestrian- or rider-controlled non-stacking lift truck fitted with forks.

Panamax Size

The maximum measurements and dimensions of a vessel capable to pass the Panama Canal.


See Package

Participating Carrier

A carrier participating in a tariff and who therefore applies the rates, charges, routing and regulations of the tariff. A carrier over whose air routes one or more sections of carriage under the Air Waybill is undertaken or performed (air cargo).

Particular Average

A fortuitous partial loss to the subject matter insured, proximately caused by an insured peril but which is not a general average loss. Particular average only relates to damage and/or expenses which are exclusively borne by the owners of a vessel which has sustained damage as a result of e.g. heavy weather or by the owners of the cargo, which has been damaged in transit.


An ongoing relationship between two organisations which involves a commitment over an extended time period and a mutual sharing of the risks and rewards of the relationship.


A party to whom a payment is made or owed.


A party who pays or is to pay.


The revenue-producing load carried by a means of transport.


That which discharges a debt.

Payment Against Documents

Instructions given by a seller to a bank to the effect that the buyer may collect the documents necessary to obtain delivery of the goods only upon actual payment of the invoice.

Performance Indicator

A variable indicating the effectiveness and/or efficiency of a process.

Performance Measurement

The comparison of the results of business processes with each other or with standards in order to know the effectiveness of these processes and/or the supportive actions.


Ratio expressed as a percentage assumed for the volume of a compartment which can be flooded by water after damage, to the total volume of that compartment; respectively the actual calculated value of that ratio.

Phased Delivery

The delivery of parts of the shipment.

Physical Distribution

Those activities related to the flow of goods from the end of conversion to the customer.

Physical Distribution Management

The planning execution and control of those activities which are related to the flow of goods from the end of conversion to the customer.

Pick and Pack

Taking goods out of a stock and packing them according to customer conditions.

Pick Order

An order to pick certain quantities of goods out of a stock.

Pick Up and Delivery

A service concerning the collection of cargo from the premises of the consignor and the delivery to the premises of the consignee.

Pick Up Service

The carriage of outbound consignments from the point of pick up to the airport of departure (air cargo).


Taking products or components out of a stock.

Picking List

A list used to collect items from stores needed to fulfil an order.


See Quay


The carriage of road vehicles and trailers on railway wagons.


Petty stealing of goods from a ship's hold, cargo shed or warehouse.


Local expert advising a vessel's captain on safe navigation in those areas where the captain is ignorant of local circumstances or where it is obligatory to take a pilot. A person qualified to operate the controls of an aircraft.

Pilot In Command

The pilot responsible for the operation and safety of the aircraft during flight time.


A line of pipes for conveying liquids and gasses. The physical goods flow from a supplying organisation to a receiving organisation.

Pipeline Inventory

The amount of goods in a pipeline: the sum of loading stock, goods in transit and receiving stock.

Pivot Weight

Minimum chargeable weight of a Unit Load Device.

Place of Acceptance

See Place of Receipt

Place of Delivery

The location where a consignment (shipment) is delivered to the consignee viz. the place where the carrier's liability ends for the transport venture.

Place of Despatch

Name and address specifying where goods are collected or taken over by the carrier (i.e. if other than consignor).

Place of Receipt

The location where a consignment (shipment) is received by the carrier from the shipper viz. the place where the carrier's liability for transport venture commences.


The activity of positioning an object or goods in a chosen location or position.


The setting of goals over a certain time and the determination of how to achieve these goals and with what resource.

Planning Horizon

The period of time to which a certain particular plan relates.


The area on an airport where aircrafts are parked for embarkation and/or loading and discharging purposes (air cargo).

Platform Body

A truck or trailer without ends, sides or top but with only a floor.

Platform Body

A truck or trailer without ends, sides or top but with only a floor.

Plimsoll Mark

A mark, welded on both sides of the vessel, which gives the limit to which a vessel may be loaded, depending on the specific gravity of the water in which the vessel is situated.

Plimsoll Mark

A mark, welded on both sides of the vessel, which gives the limit to which a vessel may be loaded, depending on the specific gravity of the water in which the vessel is situated.

Point to Point Transport

See House to House Transport

Point Value

The point value can be seen as the relative value of an empty container of a certain size type in a depot location. The system serves to quantify the imbalance costs resulting from a full container move and are the result of empty optimisation calculations. Point values are created on forecasted container flows between depot locations. They are calculated taking into account a.o. the forecasted imbalances plus repositioning, storage and container costs for empty moves and expressed in USD. Note: In the various computer systems point values are used to calculate the imbalance charge or credit for a particular container flow. This charge or credit is the difference in point values between start and end depot location.


A floating flat structure used for work alongside the ship, to facilitate embarkation or disembarkation of persons, or to move cargo alongside.


The shared use of e.g. equipment by a number of companies, which make together the investments in the equipment mentioned.


Aft part of a vessel where the steering engine is located.


Harbour having facilities for vessels to moor and load or discharge. Left side of a vessel when facing towards the front or forward end.

Port of Call

Place where a vessel actually drops anchor or moors during a certain voyage.

Port of Discharge

The port where the cargo is actually discharged (unloaded) from the sea (ocean) going vessel.

Port of Loading

The port where the cargo is actually loaded on board the sea (ocean) going vessel.

Portal Crane

A type of gantry crane with vertical legs of sufficient height and width to permit vehicles or railroad equipment to pass between the legs.


A statement concerning a vessel containing the actual arrival and departure time used tugs, draft, dead-weight, quantity of discharged and loaded goods/containers and any other important particulars.


The transport of empty equipment from a depot to shipper's premises or from consignee's premises back to a depot as the empty leg of a carrier haulage transport.

Postal Code

A national code maintained by the Postal Authorities designed to indicate areas and accumulated addresses to facilitate sorting and the delivery of mail and other goods. Note: The coding system is different in the various countries throughout the world. In the Netherlands the code consists of 4 figures and 2 characters.


That what has become customary as a result of repeated acts.


The act of placing goods in slings which are left in position and used for loading into and discharging from a conventional vessel.

Pre-trip Inspection

Abbreviation: PTI A technical inspection of Reefer containers prior to positioning for stuffing.


The carriage of goods (containers) by any mode of transport from the place of receipt to the port (place) of loading into the ocean vessel (main means of transport).


The carrier by which the goods are moved prior to the main transport.

Preshipment Inspection

Abbreviation: PSI The checking of goods before shipment for the purpose of determining the quantity and/or quality of said goods by an independent surveyor (inspection company) for phytosanitary, sanitary and veterinary controls. Presently there is a tendency by developing countries to use the inspection also for the purpose of determining whether the price charged for certain goods is correct.


Person for whom another acts as agent.

Principal Carrier

See Responsible Carrier

Principal Corporate Body

The company that owns the various subsidiary companies or branches acting as customers on their own and is registered as the corporate customer for statistical purposes.

Priority Order

An order which is identified as taking precedence over other orders to ensure its completion in the minimum time.

Private Warehouse

A warehouse operated by the owner of the goods stored there.

Pro Forma Invoice

Draft invoice sent to an importer by the exporter prior to order confirmation and shipment to assist in matters relating to obtaining import licences or foreign exchange allocations, or simply to advise the value of a consignment so that letters of credit can be opened.


Steps to be followed in order to comply with a formality, including the timing, format and transmission method for the submission of required information.

Process Mapping

A diagrammatically break down of a supply chain.


The activities which ensure the availability of the material and or services in the desired quantity, quality, place and time from the supplier.

Procurement Logistics

Control of the flow of materials up to the manufacturing process.


A result, end items or output from a certain process.

Product Chain

All phases in the transformation- or production process of one product.

Product Life Cycle

The period of time between the introduction date and end date of a product in the market. Note: Phases are introduction, growth, maturity, saturation, decline & end.


The conversion of materials and or assembly of components to manufacture goods, products or services. The total quantity of goods manufactured or to be manufactured in a particular period of time expressed in quantitative or financial terms. (The term manufacturing is often used specifically for physical operations resulting in a product).


Relative measure of output of labour hour or machine hour.

Profit Centre

An organisational unit which will be held responsible for its own profits and losses.

Project Cargo

Quantity of goods connected to the same project and often carried on different moments and from various places.

Project Management

Managing a transport project, which involves the design and implementation of logistics solutions including resource planning, costing and profits.

Proof of Delivery

The receipt signed by the consignee upon delivery.

Proper Shipping Name

A name to be used to describe particular goods on all P&O Nedlloyd documents and notifications and, if appropriate, on the goods. basis (air cargo).

Protection and Indemnity Club

Abbreviation: P & I club A mutual association of shipowners who provide protection against liabilities by means of contributions.


A statement drawn up to attest certain events.

Public Authorities

The agencies or officials in a state responsible for the application and enforcement of the laws and regulations of that state. Source: IMO.

Public Warehouse

A warehouse which is available to all companies and persons who wish to make use of the services offered.

Published Charge

A charge, the amount of which is specifically set forth in the carrier's rates tariff.

Published Rate

See Published Charge

Pull Distribution System

A system to provide warehouses with new stock on request of the warehouse management.

Purchase Order

A definite order for one or more deliveries by the supplier to the customer of a specific quantity of goods, materials, services or products under agreed terms of delivery and prices.

Purchase Order Management

Supply chain management to purchase order article level.

Push Distribution System

A system to provide warehouses with new stock upon decision of the supplier of the goods

swiss to fly ppe in from china swiss is to perform a series of flights bringing vital protective medical equipment from china to switzerland. air cargo china cancelled the global covid-19 pandemic is growing in scale and is exceeding all ex-pectations. in consultation with partners and associations of the air freight industry messe münchen feels compelled to cancel air cargo china, which was scheduled for june 16–18 in shanghai. lufthansa hopes to keep cargo flying lufthansa cargo is making every effort to maintain the flight operations of its cargo aircraft in the current corona crisis. turkish cargo puts cargo in the passenger cabin turkish cargo will utilise their network and fly their turkish airlines passenger aircraft for airfreight as repercussions from the coronavirus outbreak and travel bans send global supply chains into disarray. latam cargo mitigates supply chain difficulties through freighters latam cargo has sought to mitigate the current difficulties through its 11 b767-300 freighter aircraft, which make latam cargo group the cargo airline with the most freighters operating in latin america. swiss worldcargo to commence freight-only flights swiss worldcargo has announced that this week will see the commencement of cargo-only flights on some aircraft. heathrow calls on supply chain to maximise capacity heathrow will be stepping up its cargo capabilities as it calls on more airlines and freight companies to maximise the use of the hub airport’s quieter schedule so that the aviation industry can play its part in the economic and social fight against covid-19. turkish cargo connects linz with direct freighter service turkish cargo is continuing to increase its network announcing new direct freighter flights to linz (austria). caribbean airlines cargo suspends two freighter services caribbean airlines has temporarily suspended its tuesday and thursday freighter flights etihad announces new freighter schedule etihad cargo has announced its freighter schedule for the iata summer season, boosting capacity to its top freighter gateways. atlas air’s flynn on track for a new career former atlas air president and ceo william j flynn has been appointed as us passenger train operator amtrak’s next chief executive officer and president. swiss worldcargo extends china suspensions in light of the current coronavirus situation, swiss and swiss worldcargo have made further adjustments on flights between zurich and beijing, shanghai and hong kong. fraport announces cost-reduction measures in response to coronavirus frankfurt airport operator fraport has announced new cost-reduction measures in response to the impact of the coronavirus. silkway keeps flying the current corona epidemic is having a significant impact on the air cargo industry. the aviation industry has taken the hit of coronavirus “airlines, aviation financing and plane makers – inherently vulnerable to the economic side-effects of a potential pandemic – faced challenges as the year began, ensuring they are now at growing risk of severe coronavirus-related disruption,” says scope, specialist financial analysts. covid-19: the disruption continues for supply chains richard wilding obe, professor of supply chain strategy at the uk’s cranfield university, comments on the latest challenges covid-19 presents the supply chain. he points out that consumer demand for face masks is impacting on wider industry needs. cargolux and atlas air predict a subdued airfreight market in 2020 the cargo freight market is likely to remain weak this year, industry leaders believe, as it remains hampered by overcapacity and weak growth in several regions around the world. finnair cancels mainland china flights until the end of winter finnair will cancel its flights to beijing capital airport and to shanghai during march 1-28, 2020 (until the end of the winter season), as the coronavirus situation has led to a temporary decline in air travel between china and europe. airbridgecargo offers charter flights to meet coronavirus-related demand the volga-dnepr group has been operating as many as five “sterilised” charter flights into china each day to cater for coronavirus related demand. valentines boost for latam cargo more than 210 latam cargo boeing 767-300 freighters took off from colombia and ecuador, carrying 12,600 tons of flowers for the 2020 valentine’s day season